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Turkmenistan Facts Turkmenistan Flag Turkmenistan Map

Turkmenistan Map
current time and date
currency: Turkmen new manat (TMT)
Official languages
Life expectancy
Literacy rate
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Internet TLD & calling code:
Coat of arms
Turkmenistan profile

the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country;

eastern part is plateau
Turkmenistan history
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim crusaders, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects. The Government of Turkmenistan is actively working to diversify its gas export routes beyond the still important Russian pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president; he was chosen as president again in February 2012, in an election that the OSCE said lacked the freedoms necessary to create a competitive environment.
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Conventional long form: none

Conventional short form: Turkmenistan

Local long form: none

Local short form: Turkmenistan

Formerly known as: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
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Turkmenistan's capital city is Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
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Turkmenistan Constitution:

adopted 26 September 2008
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Turkmenistan population growth rate: 1.143%
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Turkmenistan highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
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Turkmenistan lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m
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About 5% of Turkmenistan's land is arable.
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Turkmenistan birth rate is 20 births/1,000 population
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Turkmenistan infant mortality rate is 41 deaths/1,000 live births
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Turkmenistan fertility rate is 2.12 children born/woman
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Turkmenistan climate:

subtropical desert
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Top 10 cities of Turkmenistan with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Ashgabat: 727,700
2. Türkmenabat: 234,817
3. Daşoguz: 166,500
4. Mary: 114,680
5. Balkanabat: 87,822
6. Baýramaly: 75,797
7. Türkmenbaşy: 68,292
8. Tejen: 67,294
9. Abadan: 39,481
10. Magdanly: 34,745
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Turkmenistan ethnic groups:

Turkmen - 85%

Uzbek - 5%

Russian - 4%

other - 6%
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Turkmenistan Exports:

crude oil
cotton fiber
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Turkmenistan Imports:

machinery and equipment
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unicameral parliament known as the National Assembly (Mejlis) (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat)
1. Ahal Welayaty (Anew)
2. Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat)
3. Dashoguz Welayaty
4. Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat)
5. Mary Welayaty

and 1 independent city: Ashgabat
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (DPT) - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, Chairman; Kasymguly BABAYEW, DPT Political Council First Secretary

Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (PIE) - Orazmammet MAMMEDOW (party registered 21 August 2012)